For all indexes of a battery, the capacity stands as the most important sector. It allows you to understand how long you can use the battery and its energy is enough for your machine or equipment or not. Battery capacity is normally seen as Amp-hr of the charge that is stored by the battery. How to determine it? It is very easy to determine the capacity through the mass of active material obtained in the battery.
Through the capacity, you can know the maximum amount of energy extracted from the battery in certain conditions. Moreover, the battery capacity depends on many items including the age and past history of the battery, the charging or discharging regimes of it and the temperature or conditions it can be used.
We measure the battery capacity through Ampere Hours in the most common cases. AH is the time for a battery to provide a current equal to the discharge rate at the nominal voltage of it. Especially, when working with battery systems, the battery voltage will change via the charging or discharging cycle, leading the variation of AH. Besides, you can have a more accurate approach by taking into account the variation of voltage from integrating AH capacity x V(t) over the time of the charging time. For example, a mode of Optima battery with a 12 voltage battery that has a capacity of 500 AH battery will allow energy storage of about 1200 Wh. However, the difference of charging rate or temperatures, practical or accurate reports, and other information will largely impact on the battery capacity.
Depth of discharge is necessary to follow when you use a battery. It determines the fraction of damage to the battery. This directly affect the duration of the battery. As common, there are many types of batteries which have the full energy stored and not be able to be withdrawn without causing serious. Therefore, they are often irreparable damage to the battery. Depth of discharge will help you limit the damage and protect the battery for longer time. In addition to the overall depth of discharge, lots of battery’s manufactories specify a daily depth of discharge that allows you to understand the maximum power withdrawn from a battery in a single day.
Charging and Discharging Rate: strongly affect the rated battery capacity. It is necessary to know that the battery capacity will be lower when it is being discharged quickly; the amount of energy that can be extracted from the battery is reduced. The reason is because the necessary components for the reaction to occur do not necessarily have enough time to move to their moderate positions. By the contrast, if the battery is discharged at a very slow rate and uses a low current, there is more energy that can be extracted from it and its capacity is higher, as the result. Thus, the battery of capacity should include the discharging/discharging rate.
Temperature: of a battery shows you how the energy can be extracted from the battery. At higher temperatures, the battery capacity will be higher than at lower levels. However, it is never the effective way to increase your battery capacity when you intentionally elevate battery temperature because this is the way decreasing your battery lifetime.
History and age of battery have main impact on the capacity of a battery. Let alone that you follow the factor above like depth of discharging, the battery capacity will stay or close to the rated capacity for a limited number of charge or discharging cycles. The history of the battery has an important impact on the capacity. More details, when the battery has been taken below the maximum depth of discharging amount, battery capacity will be reduced and the rated number of discharge or charge cycles are also not be available.
How to evaluate capacity of your batter plays a crucial role of saving your battery for a long time. Also, this is the way for you to select the best battery when you are finding from the market. Thus, it is necessary to hold these items for better usage of a battery.